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Available online at www.jpsscientificpublications.com

 

Life Science Archives (LSA)

ISSN: 2454-1354

Volume – 2; Issue - 5; Year – 2016; Page: 773 – 780

 

 
 


DOI: 10.21276/lsa.2016.2.5.15

 

Research Article

THE INFLUENCE OF MELATONIN HORMONE`S TREATMENT ON SEX HORMONES AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON ARABISHEEP AND LOCALGOATS

Waleed Y. Kassim1*, Murtada F. AL-HeLou2 and Khalaf A. H. Al-Rishdy1,

1Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah.

 

 
 


2Department of Biology, College of Education/ Qurna, University of Basrah

Abstract

The study was conducted at one of the commercial animal farms in AL-Qurna region to investigate the influence of treatment melatonin on sex hormones and some biochemical parameters on Arabi sheep and local goats. A total of 30 healthy dry ewes Arabi sheep and female local goats (15 for each type of animal) were examined. All animals were treated with melatonin at dose 9 mg/ head orally. The results showed asignificant (P<0.01) increase in some of biochemical parameters such as glucose concentration after 48 hrs of treatment and AST enzyme after 24 hrs of treatment and a significant (P<0.01) decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride concentration after 24 hrs of treatment on both type of animals. Prolactin concentration was significant (P<0.01) decrease after 48 hrs of treatment while estradiol, FSH and LH hormones concentration were significant (P<0.01) increase after melatonin treatment in both type of animals. No significant difference were presented in concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT enzyme and progesterone hormone after melatonin treatment.

 

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Article History

Received : 05.09.2016

Revised :  30.09.2016

Accepted : 26.10.2016

1.   Introduction

Fat tailed Arabi sheep and black local Iraqi

goats are the most common breeds in the southern of Iraq and are the most important breeds in semi- arid regions. They haveseveral traits like those used for both meat and milk production, high adaptability to difficult conditions, resistance to diseases, tolerance to high temperature and ability to walk long distances for grazing (Thomson et al., 2003).

Melatonin is one of the neuro hormones produced and released from pineal gland (Skotnicka and Heynczak, 2001). Thesecreting

 

 
 

 

* Corresponding author: Waleed Y. Kassim


Key words: Sheep, Goat, Iraq, Melatonin, Sex hormone and Biochemical parameters.

 

 

 

from this gland rhythmically depends on the lighting conditions (Kowiak et al., 1999). This hormone is a derivative of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, and possesses multiple physiological. Melatonin may act directly or indirectly on many processes influencing the metabolism of the entire body (Darul and Kruczynska, 2004). There are many researches indicating the effect of the pineal gland hormone on carbohydrate - lipid metabolism (Kowiak et al., 1999; Hoys et al., 2000). Also, Sex hormones are regulated by the serum levels of melatonin (Malpaux et al., 2001), which are stimulated by the release of gonadotropin - releasinghormone


 


(GnRH) from the hypothalamus – pituitary

- gonadal axis, leading to regulating secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH) for control estrus and ovulation (Malpaux et al., 2001; Reiter et al., 2009). In other hand, because of the circadian melatonin rhythm could provided a critical endocrine signal to regulate secretion of the sex hormone (Yellon et al.,1992).

Depending on our information there are few reports about the effect of melatonin on the metabolism compounds in blood of rumen animals in Iraq. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment melatonin on sex hormones levels and some biochemical parameters in Arabi sheep and local goats in Iraq.

2.   Materials andMethods

The study was conducted at one of the commercial animal farms in AL-Qurna region (76 km north of Basrah state, Iraq) to investigate the influence of treatment with melatonin on sex hormones and some biochemical parameters in Arabi ewes and local goats in Iraq. A total of 30 healthy dry ewes Arabi sheep and female local goats (15 for each type of animal) aged between

3.0 - 4.5 years old were used. All animals were treated with melatonin at dose 9 mg/ head orally according to the method of Kennaway and Seamark (1980) in the morning hours. During the study,   all   animals   were   fed   the   sameration

3.   Results


composed 300 g/head of concentrate diet, in addition, allowed to graze all the day and they provided ad libitum clean drinking and trace mineral block.

Seven ml of blood were collected from the via jugular of all animals at three times: before treatment, after 24 and 48 hrs of treatment. Blood samples were separated by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes and were frozen under – 20 oC until analysis time.

The concentration of albumin was determined by using chemical kit of biochemical

              Germany . The glucose concentration was measured by chemical kit of England Plamatec company. The total protein, cholesterol, triacyloglycerides, AST (L - Aspartate 2 - Oxaglutrate Amino Transferase) and ALT (L - Alanine 2 - Oxaglutrate Amino Transferase) enzymes concentrations were measured by used chemical kit of France Biomeriex company. Prolactin, Estradiol, FSH, LH and progesterone concentrations were determined by using procedure associated with the kit of MonobindInc

       USAcompany.

The obtained data were analyzed statistically using the SPSS (2013) software package with a one-way analysis of variance. Statistically significant differences were determined at the P<0.01 levels of significance.


The data in Table - 1 indicated that no significant effects in total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations in all the treated animals either before or after treatment.

Table - 1: Effect of treatment with melatonin on some biochemical parameters (mg/100 ml) in serum of sheep and goats ( N = 30) ( Mean ± SE)

 

Period

Type of animal

Total protein

Albumin

Globulin

Before treatment

Sheep

6.06±1.27

3.79±0.81

2.27±0.13

Goat

5.79±1.81

3.41±0.90

2.38±0.12

Mean

 

5.92±1.18

3.60±0.62

2.32±0.12

After 24 h of

treatment

Sheep

5.76±1.11

3.54±0.71

2.22±0.22

Goat

5.47±1.21

3.94±0.92

2.53±0.21

Mean

 

5.61±1.61

3.24±0.62

2.37±0.13

After 48 h of

treatment

Sheep

6.04±1.81

3.60±0.90

2.44±0.15

Goat

5.73±1.92

3.26±0.51

2.47±0.19

Mean

 

5.89±1.66

3.42±0.86

2.45±0.17


 

The concentration of glucose was shown significant (P<0.01) increase after treatment with melatonin from 46.05 ± 1.22 mg/100 ml to 48.67 ± 2.24 and 69.96 ± 1.2 mg/100 ml after 24 and 48 hrs of treatment respectively (Table - 2). The Arabi ewes were treated melatonin shown elevation glucose concentration compared with treated female goats after 48 hrs of treatment. Concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P<0.01) decreased in both type of animal after treated with melatonin especially after 24 hrs of treatment. This declining was highly significant (P<0.01) in treated female goats in comparison with treated ewes.

Table – 2: Effect of treatment with melatonin on glucose and some lipids (mg/100 ml) in serum of sheep and goats (N = 30) (Mean ± SE)

 

Period

Type of animal

Glucose

Cholesterol

Triglyceride

Before treatment

Sheep

40.04±2.00d

81.09±4.61b

45.17±2.91bc

Goat

52.05±2.61c

118.91±5.55a

50.25±3.11a

Mean

 

46.05±1.22B

100.00±6.62A

47.71±3.00A

After 24 h of

treatment

Sheep

45.60±2.62cd

75.19±3.51b

34.68±2.11d

Goat

51.75±1.89c

64.11±4.21c

41.59±2.81cd

Mean

 

48.67±2.24B

69.65±4.51C

34.68±2.11B

After 48 h of

treatment

Sheep

76.25±2.98a

101.42±5.61a

39.22±2.62ab

Goat

63.67±2.52b

73.56±4.01bc

40.48±3.01a

Mean

 

69.96±1.2A

87.49±3.42B

39.85±2.26B

 

Different capital and small later within column means significant difference (p<0.01 ) between type of animal and period of treatment respectively. The Table - 3 revealed a significant (P<0.01) increase in AST enzyme after treatment melatonin from 47.60 ± 2.82 to 64.20 ± 2.51 UI/L after 24 hrs of treatment. While, there were no significant difference between ewes and female goats in concentration of AST enzyme after 24 and 48 hrs of treatment. No significant differences was shown in concentration of ALT enzyme between  both types ofanimals.

 

Table – 3: Effect of treatment with melatonin hormone on some enzymes (UI/L) in serum of sheep and goats (N = 30) (Mean ± SE)

 

Period

Type of animal

AST

ALT

Before treatment

Sheep

45.40±2.01b

16.40±0.98

Goat

49.80±3.05b

24.25±1.01

Mean

 

47.60±2.82B

20.30±1.62

After 24 h of

treatment

Sheep

68.80±2.82a

19.20±1.11

Goat

59.60±3.61a

15.60±1.82

Mean

 

64.20±2.51A

17.40±0.92

After 48 h of

treatment

Sheep

44.80±2.62b

14.40±1.11

Goat

38.20±2.11bc

17.20±0.82

Mean

 

41.50±2.71B

15.20±1.21

Different capital and small later within column means significant difference (p<0.01) between treatment and type of animal respectively. Prolactin hormone concentration observed significant (P<0.01) decrease after 48 hrs of treatment melatonin in both types of animals. The values declined from 233.96 ±

11.87 to 190.01 ± 12.88 pg/ml and from 241.45 ±10.76 to 163.42 ±13.89 pg/ml for female goats and ewes respectively (Figure - 1).


 

 

 

Figure - 1: Effect of treatment with melatonin on concentration of Prolactin hormone

 


The results of effect of melatonin on concentrations of estradiol , FSH and LH hormones were presented in Figures - 2, 3 and 4. Female goats showed significant (P<0.01) rising in estradiol and FSH concentration after 24 hrs of treatment while ewes showed significant (P<0.01) rising in the same hormones after 48 hrs of treatment. Concentration of FSHexhibited a significant (P<0.01) increase after melatonin treatment in both types of animals, the valueswere


ranged between 1.95 ± 0.15 – 2.92 ± 0.11 ng/ml

and 2.03  ±  0.13– 2.87  ±0.12ng/ml    for female goats and ewesrespectively.

No significant difference was presented in concentration of progesterone hormone after melatonin treatment in both type of animals (Figure - 5) . However, the values of the level of progesterone were statistically high in female goats compared withewes.


 

 

 

Figure - 2: Effect of treatment with melatonin on concentration of estradiol hormone


 

 

 

 

 

Figure - 3: Effect of treatment with melatonin on concentration of FSH hormone

 

 
 

 

Figure - 4: Effect of treatment with melatonin on concentration of LH hormone


 

 

 

Figure - 5: Effect of treatment with melatonin on concentration of progesterone hormone

 

 


4.   Discussion

The level of glucose was increased after treatment with melatonin in both types animals (Table - 2) due to the direct effect of melatonin on release of insulin from pancreas gland (Sejian and Srivastava, 2010). As known, the insulin hormone stimulation the metabolism of glucose from cells, so it will rise in serum. This result agreed with the results of Daryl and Kruczynska (2004). They founda significant increase in plasma glucose after melatonin treatment in goat. The decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride concentration after 24 hrs of treatment in ewes and female goats may due to the depleting of the lipid (cholesterol) in blood for synthesis of steroid hormone (Sejian and Srivastava, 2010).

The increase in AST enzyme after 24 hrs of melatonin treatment in both types of animals (Table - 3) due tothat melatonin may causes a kind of stress on animals which leads to elevationon the level of AST enzyme in blood. In spite of the level of ALT enzyme do not elevation after melatonin treatment.

The reason of the decrease in prolactin concentration after 48 hrs of treatment in both types of animals (Figure - 1), may due the melatonin inhibits prolactin gene expression either


through the inhibition of thyrotropin - releasing hormone (TRH) or by direct inhibition of the anterior pituitary (Adam and Atkinson, 1984) or may due to the negative relationship between melatonin and prolactin hormone (Wang et al., 2014). Similar results were also observed by Robinson et al. (1992), Wheaton et al. (1990) and Kennaway et al. (1982), they reported that treatment melatonin caused decrease level of prolactin hormone in ewes. The reason of increase in estradiol concentration after 24 hrs of treatment in female goats and after 48 hrs in ewes may due tothe action of melatonin in stimulation of FSH secret (Figure - 3) and this leads to ina follicular development which causesan evaluation in level of estradiol hormone in blood (Legan and Karsch, 1979).

HighFSH and LH hormones concentrationsafter treatment melatonin in both types of animals (Figure – 3 and 4) may due tothe melatonin leads to the stimulation of the neurons to produces GnRH, and subsequently the secretion of GnRH, which leads to increase of LH and FSHlevels in blood (Kalatova et al., 2009) or may due to the melatonin which promotes the synthesis and secretion of FSH and LH directly by either the hypothalamus or by β-adrenergic receptors localizedinovaries(Diazetal.,2000).


 


Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation between treatment melatonin and LH levels in blood (Wang et al., 2014). This result agreed with the results of Wang et al. (2014) in female deer, but do not agree with the data of Robinson et al. (1992) and Wheaton et al. (1990), in the sense that there was no significant difference in concentration hormones between treated group and controls in different breeds of sheep.

The reason of non-significant difference in concentration of progesterone hormone after melatonin treatment in both types of animals (Figure - 5) may due to that time which needs for maturation follicular and synthesis cropus luteum was not enough. So, the level of progesterone in blood dose not change rapidly.

5.   Conclusion

The data obtained in this study suggests that we can improve level of glucose and some sex hormones such as estradiol, FSH and LH when treating Arabi ewes and female local goats with melatonin at 9 mg/head dose orally.

6.   References

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